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Heart Disease
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Heart Disease, What Is It?


Heart disease in the medical field is defined as any disease that affects the heart, and this is the number one cause of death in U.S where one person died of it in every 37 seconds in 2007.


Heart diseases are divided into different macro-areas.


Congenital heart disease


This disease is a congenital cardiac malformation of cardiac structure or function of the cardiovascular, present from birth, but often is diagnosed during adulthood.


Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension is defined as the pathological condition that occurs when the pressure in right ventricle than 25 mmHg at rest, resulting in increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. The average pressure is 15-20 mmHg. 


Eisenmenger Syndrome

Cardiac arrhythmias: Arrhythmias are caused by a normal or abnormal impulse formation, abnormal impulse conduction, a combination of these. Impulse formation is due to localized changes in ionic currents. There are main heart disease causes and symptoms which can lead to arrhythmias: the automatism and triggered activity. The drive unit is normal or abnormal. The normal one can be found not only to NSA but also in some latent or subsidiary pacemakers. The abnormal automatic is defined by initiation of a repetitive spontaneous impulse. Unlike arrhythmias by automatic, the triggered activity must necessarily be preceded by an action potential that moves triggered by the NSA in the focus, what can happen when the focus is often greater than the NSA, to increased activity or reduced activity of the first second. 


Heart defects

Atrial septal defect; Atrioventricular septal defects; Isolated ventricular septal defect


Congenital heart disease cyanotic


Tetralogy of Fallot: Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital cardiac malformation that classically has four anatomical elements. Was described for the first time in 1672 by Nicholas Steno. In 1888 the French physician Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot described exactly the four anatomical features:

1. The communication between the two ventricles, the two sides pumping of the heart (VSD).

2. The origin biventricular aorta, which straddles between the two ventricles, over the VSD (aorta to Knight). 

3. Stenosis (narrowing) sub-valve and pulmonary valve.

4. Hypertrophy (i.e., muscle swelling) of the right ventricle, as a consequence of other defects. This disease arises because, already in embryology, the top and bottom of the heart do not match, causing an outflow obstruction to the pulmonary artery with the consequences outlined above. The baby appears blue is with peripheral cyanosis and periglacial. The drumstick fingers are formed by the mixing of blood (oxygenated blood is not completely) due to ventricular septal defect.

Tricuspid atresia
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Isomerism Ebstein Anomaly
Valvular and vascular disorders
Aortic Coarctation simple and localized
Vascular Rings
Aortic arch hypoplasia
Congenital aortic stenosis
Congenital mitral stenosis
Congenital valvular stenosis; Congenital mitral insufficiency
Cardiac lesions
Cor triatriatum
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula


Valvular heart disease


Valvular heart disease affects a single heart valve, but if it includes more valves called multi-valve disease, which is a combination of the following diseases: Mitral stenosis; Mitral regurgitation; Mitral valve prolapse syndrome; Aortic; Aortic insufficiency, normal and chronic; Tricuspid stenosis


Infective endocarditis


Infective endocarditis is a bacterial infection that affects the heart and specifically affects the endothelial surface.


Myocardial 


The myocardial or cardiomyopathies are the set of disorders that affect mainly the heart muscle, they are called primitive because they can not derive from any other previous illness and take some guidelines for heart disease


They are in restrictive cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiomyopathy unclassifiable, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, these disorders are not easily classified into one of the other categories.
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