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About Pneumonia

neumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally per year, seven percent of population, and results in about 4 million deaths, mostly in third-world countries. Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death", the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century has seen improvements in survival.

The term pneumonia is sometimes more broadly applied to any condition resulting in inflammation of the lungs (caused for example by autoimmune diseases, chemical burns or drug reactions); however, this inflammation is more accurately referred to as pneumonitis. Infective agents were historically divided into "typical" and "atypical" based on their presumed presentations, but the evidence has not supported this distinction, thus it is no longer emphasized.

Bacteria are the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in nearly 50% of Other commonly isolated bacteria include Haemophilus influenzae in 20%, Chlamydophila pneumoniae in 13%, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 3% of cases; Staphylococcus aureus; Moraxella catarrhalis; Legionella pneumophila and Gram-negative bacilli

A variety of parasites can affect the lungs, including Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Plasmodium malariae.These organisms typically enter the body through direct contact with the skin, ingestion, or via an insect vector. Except for Paragonimus westermani, most parasites do not affect specifically the lungs but involve the lungs secondarily to other sites.

Viral

Viruses may reach the lung by a number of different routes. Respiratory syncytial virus is typically contracted when people touch contaminated objects and then they touch their eyes or nose.Other viral infections occur when contaminated airborne droplets are inhaled through the mouth or nose.Once in the upper airway, the viruses may make their way in the lungs, where they invade the cells lining the airways, alveoli, or lung parenchyma.Some viruses such as measles and herpes simplex may reach the lungs via the blood.

Physical exam

Physical examination may sometimes reveal low blood pressure, high heart rate, or low oxygen saturation. The respiratory rate may be faster than normal, and this may occur a day or two before other signs

Microbiology

In patients managed in the community, determining the causative agent is not cost-effective and typically does not alter management.For people that do not respond to treatment.

Prognosis

With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia will stabilize in 3–6 days. It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms resolve. X-ray finding typically clear within four weeks and mortality is low (less than 1%).In the elderly or people with other lung problems, recovery may take more than 12 weeks. In persons requiring hospitalization, mortality may Before the advent of antibiotics, mortality was typically 30% in those that were hospitalized.

Complications may occur in particular in the elderly and those with underlying health problems. This may include, among others: empyema, lung abscess, bronchiolitis obliterans, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and worsening of underlying health problems

Epidemiology

Pneumonia is a common illness affecting approximately 450 million people a year and occurring in all parts of the world. It is a major cause of death among all age groups resulting in 4 million deaths (7% of the world's total death) yearly.Rates are greatest in children less than five, and adults older than 75 years. It occurs about five times more frequently in the developing world than in the developed world. Viral pneumonia accounts for about 200 million cases.In the United States, as of 2009, pneumonia is the 8th leading cause of death.[

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