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About Obesity

Morbidity
Main article: Obesity-associated morbidity

Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions. These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.

Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle. The strength of the link between obesity and specific conditions varies. One of the strongest is the link with type 2 diabetes. Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women.

Survival paradox
See also: Obesity paradox

Although the negative health consequences of obesity in the general population are well supported by the available evidence, health outcomes in certain subgroups seem to be improved at an increased BMI, a phenomenon known as the obesity survival paradox.The paradox was first described in 1999 in overweight and obese people undergoing hemodialysis,and has subsequently been found in those with heart failure and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between 30.0 and 34.9 had lower mortality than those with a normal weight. This has been attributed to the fact that people often lose weight as they become progressively more ill.

Diet

Dietary energy supply per capita varies markedly between different regions and countries. It has also changed significantly over time.From the early 1970s to the late 1990s the average food energy available per person per day (the amount of food bought) increased in all parts of the world except Eastern Europe. The United States had the highest availability with 3,654 calories (15,290 kJ) per person in 1996.This increased further in 2003 to 3,754 calories (15,710 kJ).[73] During the late 1990s Europeans had 3,394 calories (14,200 kJ) per person, in the developing areas of Asia there were 2,648 calories (11,080 kJ) per person, and in sub-Saharan Africa people had 2,176 calories (9,100 kJ) per person. Total food energy consumption has been found to be related to obesity.

Sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.[89] Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work, and currently at least 30% of the world's population gets insufficient exercise. This is primarily due to increasing use of mechanized transportation and a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home.

Genetics
Main article: Genetics of obesity
A painting of a dark haired pink cheeked obese nude young female leaning against a table. She is holding grapes and grape leaves in her left hand which cover

Pathophysiology
Two white mice both with similar sized ears, black eyes, and pink noses. The body of the mouse on the left, however, is about three times the width of the normal sized mouse on the right.
A comparison of a mouse unable to produce leptin thus resulting in obesity (left) and a normal mouse (right)

There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.This field of research had been almost unapproached until leptin was discovered in 1994. Since this discovery, many other hormonal mechanisms have been elucidated that participate in the regulation of appetite and food intake, storage patterns of adipose tissue, and development of insulin resistance.

Epidemiology

Before the 20th century, obesity was rare; in 1997 the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic.As of 2008 the WHO estimates that at least 500 million adults (greater than 10%) are obese, with higher rates among women than men.The rate of obesity also increases with age at least up to 50 or 60 years old

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